This Python essential exercise is to help Python beginners to learn necessary Python skills quickly.

Immerse yourself in the practice of Python’s foundational concepts, such as loops, control flow, data types, operators, list, strings, input-output, and built-in functions. This beginner’s exercise is certain to elevate your understanding of Python.

**Also, See**:

- Python Quizzes: Solve quizzes to check your knowledge of fundamental concepts.
- Python Basics: Learn the basics to solve this exercise.

**What questions are included in this Python fundamental exercise**?

- The exercise contains
**15 programs**to solve. The hint and solution is provided for each question. - I have added tips and required learning resources for each question, which will help you solve the exercise. When you complete each question, you get more familiar with the basics of Python.

Use **Online Code Editor** to solve exercise questions.

This **Python exercise covers questions on the following topics**:

- Python for loop and while loop
- Python list, set, tuple, dictionary, input, and output

Also, try to solve the basic Python Quiz for beginners

### Exercise 1: Calculate the multiplication and sum of two numbers

Given two integer numbers, return their product only if the product is equal to or lower than 1000. Otherwise, return their sum.

**Given** 1:

number1 = 20 number2 = 30

**Expected Output**:

The result is 600

**Given** 2:

number1 = 40 number2 = 30

**Expected Output**:

The result is 70

**Refer**:

## Show Hint

- Create a function that will take two numbers as parameters
- Next, Inside a function, multiply two numbers and save their product in a
`product`

variable - Next, use the if condition to check if the
`product >1000`

. If yes, return the`product`

- Otherwise, use the else block to calculate the sum of two numbers and return it.

## Show Solution

```
def multiplication_or_sum(num1, num2):
# calculate product of two number
product = num1 * num2
# check if product is less then 1000
if product <= 1000:
return product
else:
# product is greater than 1000 calculate sum
return num1 + num2
# first condition
result = multiplication_or_sum(20, 30)
print("The result is", result)
# Second condition
result = multiplication_or_sum(40, 30)
print("The result is", result)
```

### Exercise 2: Print the sum of the current number and the previous number

Write a program to iterate the first 10 numbers, and in each iteration, print the sum of the current and previous number.

**Expected Output**:

Printing current and previous number sum in a range(10) Current Number 0 Previous Number 0 Sum: 0 Current Number 1 Previous Number 0 Sum: 1 Current Number 2 Previous Number 1 Sum: 3 Current Number 3 Previous Number 2 Sum: 5 Current Number 4 Previous Number 3 Sum: 7 Current Number 5 Previous Number 4 Sum: 9 Current Number 6 Previous Number 5 Sum: 11 Current Number 7 Previous Number 6 Sum: 13 Current Number 8 Previous Number 7 Sum: 15 Current Number 9 Previous Number 8 Sum: 17

Reference article for help:

## Show Hint

- Create a variable called
`previous_num`

and assign it to 0 - Iterate the first 10 numbers one by one using for loop and range() function
- Next, display the current number (
`i`

), previous number, and the addition of both numbers in each iteration of the loop. Finally, change the value of the previous number to the current number (`previous_num = i`

).

## Show Solution

```
print("Printing current and previous number and their sum in a range(10)")
previous_num = 0
# loop from 1 to 10
for i in range(1, 11):
x_sum = previous_num + i
print("Current Number", i, "Previous Number ", previous_num, " Sum: ", x_sum)
# modify previous number
# set it to the current number
previous_num = i
```

### Exercise 3: Print characters from a string that are present at an even index number

Write a program to accept a string from the user and display characters that are present at an even index number.

For example, `str = "pynative"`

so you should display ‘p’, ‘n’, ‘t’, ‘v’.

**Expected Output**:

Orginal String is pynative Printing only even index chars p n t v

Reference article for help: Python Input and Output

## Show Hint

- Use the Python input() function to accept a string from a user.
- Calculate the length of the string using the
`len()`

function - Next, iterate each character of a string using for loop and range() function.
- Use
`start = 0`

, stop = len(s)-1, and`step =2`

. the step is 2 because we want only even index numbers - In each iteration of a loop, use
`s[i]`

to print characters present at the current even index number

## Show Solution

**Solution 1**:

```
# accept input string from a user
word = input('Enter word ')
print("Original String:", word)
# get the length of a string
size = len(word)
# iterate a each character of a string
# start: 0 to start with first character
# stop: size-1 because index starts with 0
# step: 2 to get the characters present at even index like 0, 2, 4
print("Printing only even index chars")
for i in range(0, size - 1, 2):
print("index[", i, "]", word[i])
```

**Solution 2**: Using list slicing

```
# accept input string from a user
word = input('Enter word ')
print("Original String:", word)
# using list slicing
# convert string to list
# pick only even index chars
x = list(word)
for i in x[0::2]:
print(i)
```

### Exercise 4: Remove first `n`

characters from a string

Write a program to remove characters from a string starting from zero up to `n`

and return a new string.

For example:

`remove_chars("pynative", 4)`

so output must be`tive`

. Here, we need to remove the first four characters from a string.`remove_chars("pynative", 2)`

so output must be`native`

. Here, we need to remove the first two characters from a string.

**Note**: `n`

must be less than the length of the string.

## Show Hint

Use string slicing to get the substring. For example, to remove the first four characters and the remaining use `s[4:]`

.

## Show Solution

```
def remove_chars(word, n):
print('Original string:', word)
x = word[n:]
return x
print("Removing characters from a string")
print(remove_chars("pynative", 4))
print(remove_chars("pynative", 2))
```

Also, try to solve Python String Exercise

### Exercise 5: Check if the first and last number of a list is the same

Write a function to return `True`

if the first and last number of a given list is same. If numbers are different then return `False`

.

**Given**:

```
numbers_x = [10, 20, 30, 40, 10]
numbers_y = [75, 65, 35, 75, 30]
```

**Expected Output**:

Given list: [10, 20, 30, 40, 10] result is True numbers_y = [75, 65, 35, 75, 30] result is False

## Show Solution

```
def first_last_same(numberList):
print("Given list:", numberList)
first_num = numberList[0]
last_num = numberList[-1]
if first_num == last_num:
return True
else:
return False
numbers_x = [10, 20, 30, 40, 10]
print("result is", first_last_same(numbers_x))
numbers_y = [75, 65, 35, 75, 30]
print("result is", first_last_same(numbers_y))
```

### Exercise 6: Display numbers divisible by 5 from a list

Iterate the given list of numbers and print only those numbers which are divisible by 5

**Expected Output**:

Given list is [10, 20, 33, 46, 55] Divisible by 5 10 20 55

## Show Solution

```
num_list = [10, 20, 33, 46, 55]
print("Given list:", num_list)
print('Divisible by 5:')
for num in num_list:
if num % 5 == 0:
print(num)
```

**Also, try to solve Python list Exercise**

### Exercise 7: Return the count of a given substring from a string

Write a program to find how many times substring “**Emma**” appears in the given string.

**Given**:

`str_x = "Emma is good developer. Emma is a writer"`

**Expected Output**:

Emma appeared 2 times

## Show Hint

Use string method `count()`

.

## Show Solution

**Solution 1**: Use the `count()`

method

```
str_x = "Emma is good developer. Emma is a writer"
# use count method of a str class
cnt = str_x.count("Emma")
print(cnt)
```

**Solution 2**: Without string method

```
def count_emma(statement):
print("Given String: ", statement)
count = 0
for i in range(len(statement) - 1):
count += statement[i: i + 4] == 'Emma'
return count
count = count_emma("Emma is good developer. Emma is a writer")
print("Emma appeared ", count, "times")
```

### Exercise 8: Print the following pattern

1 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5

**Hint**: Print Pattern using for loop

## Show Solution

```
for num in range(10):
for i in range(num):
print (num, end=" ") #print number
# new line after each row to display pattern correctly
print("\n")
```

### Exercise 9: Check Palindrome Number

Write a program to check if the given number is a palindrome number.

A palindrome number is a number that is the same after reverse. For example, 545, is the palindrome numbers

**Expected Output**:

original number 121 Yes. given number is palindrome number original number 125 No. given number is not palindrome number

## Show Hint

- Reverse the given number and save it in a different variable
- Use the if condition to check if the original and reverse numbers are identical. If yes, return
`True`

.

## Show Solution

```
def palindrome(number):
print("original number", number)
original_num = number
# reverse the given number
reverse_num = 0
while number > 0:
reminder = number % 10
reverse_num = (reverse_num * 10) + reminder
number = number // 10
# check numbers
if original_num == reverse_num:
print("Given number palindrome")
else:
print("Given number is not palindrome")
palindrome(121)
palindrome(125)
```

### Exercise 10: Create a new list from two list using the following condition

Create a new list from two list using the following condition

Given two list of numbers, write a program to create a new list such that the new list should contain odd numbers from the first list and even numbers from the second list.

**Given**:

```
list1 = [10, 20, 25, 30, 35]
list2 = [40, 45, 60, 75, 90]
```

**Expected Output**:

result list: [25, 35, 40, 60, 90]

## Show Hint

- Create an empty list named
`result_list`

- Iterate the first list using a for loop
- In each iteration, check if the current number is odd number using
`num % 2 != 0`

formula. If the current number is an odd number, add it to the result list - Now, Iterate the first list using a loop.
- In each iteration, check if the current number is odd number using
`num % 2 == 0`

formula. If the current number is an even number, add it to the result list - Print the result list

## Show Solution

```
def merge_list(list1, list2):
result_list = []
# iterate first list
for num in list1:
# check if current number is odd
if num % 2 != 0:
# add odd number to result list
result_list.append(num)
# iterate second list
for num in list2:
# check if current number is even
if num % 2 == 0:
# add even number to result list
result_list.append(num)
return result_list
list1 = [10, 20, 25, 30, 35]
list2 = [40, 45, 60, 75, 90]
print("result list:", merge_list(list1, list2))
```

**Note: **Try to solve the Python list Exercise

### Exercise 11: Write a Program to extract each digit from an integer in the reverse order.

For example, If the given int is **7536**, the output shall be “**6 3 5 7**“, with a space separating the digits.

## Show Solution

Use while loop

```
number = 7536
print("Given number", number)
while number > 0:
# get the last digit
digit = number % 10
# remove the last digit and repeat the loop
number = number // 10
print(digit, end=" ")
```

### Exercise 12: Calculate income tax for the given income by adhering to the rules below

Taxable Income | Rate (in %) |
---|---|

First $10,000 | 0 |

Next $10,000 | 10 |

The remaining | 20 |

**Expected Output**:

For example, suppose the taxable income is 45000, and the income tax payable is

10000*0% + 10000*10% + 25000*20% = $6000.

## Show Solution

```
income = 45000
tax_payable = 0
print("Given income", income)
if income <= 10000:
tax_payable = 0
elif income <= 20000:
# no tax on first 10,000
x = income - 10000
# 10% tax
tax_payable = x * 10 / 100
else:
# first 10,000
tax_payable = 0
# next 10,000 10% tax
tax_payable = 10000 * 10 / 100
# remaining 20%tax
tax_payable += (income - 20000) * 20 / 100
print("Total tax to pay is", tax_payable)
```

### Exercise 13: Print multiplication table from 1 to 10

**Expected Output**:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56 63 70 8 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 9 18 27 36 45 54 63 72 81 90 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

See: How two use nested loops in Python

## Show Hint

- Create the outer for loop to iterate numbers from 1 to 10. So, the total number of iterations of the outer loop is 10.
- Create an inner loop to iterate 10 times.
- For each outer loop iteration, the inner loop will execute ten times.
- In the first iteration of the nested loop, the number is 1. In the next, it 2. and so on till 10.
- In each iteration of an inner loop, we calculated the multiplication of two numbers. (current outer number and current inner number)

## Show Solution

```
for i in range(1, 11):
for j in range(1, 11):
print(i * j, end=" ")
print("\t\t")
```

### Exercise 14: Print a downward Half-Pyramid Pattern of Star (asterisk)

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * *

**Hint**: Print Pattern using for loop

## Show Solution

```
for i in range(6, 0, -1):
for j in range(0, i - 1):
print("*", end=' ')
print(" ")
```

### Exercise 15: Write a function called `exponent(base, exp)`

that returns an int value of base raises to the power of exp.

Note here `exp`

is a non-negative integer, and the base is an integer.

**Expected output**

**Case 1:**

base = 2 exponent = 5 2 raises to the power of 5: 32 i.e. (2 *2 * 2 *2 *2 = 32)

**Case 2:**

base = 5 exponent = 4 5 raises to the power of 4 is: 625 i.e. (5 *5 * 5 *5 = 625)

## Show Solution

```
def exponent(base, exp):
num = exp
result = 1
while num > 0:
result = result * base
num = num - 1
print(base, "raises to the power of", exp, "is: ", result)
exponent(5, 4)
```

## Next Steps

I want to hear from you. What do you think of this basic exercise? If you have better alternative answers to the above questions, please help others by commenting on this exercise.

I have shown only 15 questions in this exercise because we have Topic-specific exercises to cover each topic exercise in detail. Please solve all Python exercises.