Python Random Module: Generate Random Numbers and Data
This lesson demonstrates how to generate random data in Python using a random module. In Python, a random module implements pseudo-random number generators for various distributions, including integer and float (real).
Random Data Series
This Python random data generation series contains the following in-depth tutorial. You can directly read those.
- Python random intenger number: Generate random numbers using randint() and randrange().
- Python random choice: Select a random item from any sequence such as list, tuple, set.
- Python random sample: Select multiple random items (k sized random samples) from a list or set.
- Python weighted random choices: Select multiple random items with probability (weights) from a list or set.
- Python random seed: Initialize the pseudorandom number generator with a seed value.
- Python random shuffle: Shuffle or randomize the any sequence in-place.
- Python random float number using uniform(): Generate random float number within a range.
- Generate random string and passwords in Python: Generate a random string of letters. Also, create a random password with a combination of letters, digits, and symbols.
- Cryptographically secure random generator in Python: Generate a cryptographically secure random number using synchronization methods to ensure that no two processes can obtain the same data simultaneously.
- Python Secrets module: Use the secrets module to secure random data in Python 3.6 and above.
- Python UUID Module: Generate random Universally unique IDs
- Python Random data generation Quiz
- Python Random data generation Exercise
How to Use a random module
You need to import the random module in your program, and you are ready to use this module. Use the following statement to import the random module in your code.
import random print("Printing random number using random.random()") print(random.random()) # Output 0.5015127958234789
As you can see in the result, we have got 0.50. You may get a different number.
random.random()is the most basic function of the random module.
- Almost all functions of the random module depend on the basic function random().
random()return the next random floating-point number in the range [0.0, 1.0).
Random module functions
Now let see the different functions available in the random module and their usage.
Click on each function to study it in detail.
||Generate a random integer number within a range
||Returns a random integer number within a range by specifying the
||Select a random item from a
||Initialize the pseudorandom number generator with a seed value
||Shuffle or randomize the sequence
||Returns a random floating-point number within a range|
||Generate a random floating-point number
||Returns a random floating-point number with the beta distribution in such a way that
||It returns random floating-point numbers, exponentially distributed. If
||Returns a random floating-point number N with gamma distribution such that
import random # random number from 0 to 1 print(random.random()) # Output 0.16123124494385477 # random number from 10 to 20 print(random.randint(10, 20)) # Output 18 # random number from 10 to 20 with step 2 print(random.randrange(10, 20, 2)) # Output 14 # random float number within a range print(random.uniform(5.5, 25.5)) # Output 5.86390810771935 # random choice from sequence print(random.choice([10, 20, 30, 40, 50])) # Output 30 # random sample from sequence print(random.sample([10, 20, 30, 40, 50], k=3)) # Output [50, 10, 20] # random sample without replacement print(random.choices([10, 20, 30, 40, 50], k=3)) # Output [30, 10, 40] # random shuffle x = [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60] random.shuffle(x) print(x) # [60, 10, 30, 20, 50, 40] # random seed random.seed(2) print(random.randint(10, 20)) # 10 random.seed(2) print(random.randint(10, 20)) # 10
random.triangular(low, high, mode)
random.triangular() function returns a random floating-point number N such that
lower <= N <= upper and with the specified mode between those bounds.
The default value of a lower bound is ZERO, and the upper bounds are one. Moreover, the peak argument defaults to the midpoint between the bounds, giving a symmetric distribution.
random.triangular() function to generate random numbers for triangular distribution to use these numbers in a simulation. i.e., to generate value from a triangular probability distribution.
import random print("floating point triangular") print(random.triangular(10.5, 25.5, 5.5)) # Output 16.114862085401924
Generate random String
This guide includes the following things: -
- Generate a random string of any length.
- Generate the random password, which contains the letters, digits, and special symbols.
Cryptographically secure random generator in Python
Random Numbers and data generated by the random module are not cryptographically secure.
The cryptographically secure random generator generates random data using synchronization methods to ensure that no two processes can obtain the same data simultaneously.
A secure random generator is useful for security-sensitive applications such as OTP generation.
We can use the following approaches to secure the random generator in Python.
- The secrets module to secure random data in Python 3.6 and above.
- Use the random.SystemRandom class in Python 2.
Get and Set the state of random Generator
The random module has two functions:
random.setstate() to capture the random generator's current internal state. Using these functions, we can generate the same random numbers or sequence of data.
getstate() function returns a tuple object by capturing the current internal state of the random generator. We can pass this state to the
setstate() method to restore this state as a current state.
setstate() function restores the random generator's internal state to the
state object passed to it.
Note: By changing the state to the previous state, we can get the same random data. For example, If you want to get the same sample items again, you can use these functions.
If you get a previous state and restore it, you can reproduce the same random data repeatedly. Let see the example now to get and set the state of a random generator in Python.
import random number_list = [3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27, 30] print("First Sample is ", random.sample(number_list, k=5)) # Output [3, 27, 21, 24, 18] # Get current state and store state = random.getstate() # set current state random.setstate(state) # Now it will print the same second sample list print("Second Sample is ", random.sample(number_list, k=5)) # Output [3, 27, 21, 24, 18] random.setstate(state) # again it will print the same sample list again print("Third Sample is ", random.sample(number_list, k=5)) # Output [3, 27, 21, 24, 18] # Without setstate # Gives new sample print("Fourth Sample is ", random.sample(number_list, k=5)) # output [27, 24, 12, 21, 15]
As you can see in the output, we are getting the same sample list because we use the same state again and again
Numpy random package for multidimensional array
PRNG is an acronym for pseudorandom number generator. As you know, using the Python random module, we can generate scalar random numbers and data.
Use a NumPy module to generate a multidimensional array of random numbers. NumPy has the
numpy.random package has multiple functions to generate the random n-dimensional array for various distributions.
Create an n-dimensional array of random float numbers
- Use a
random.rand(d0, d1, …, dn)function to generate an n-dimensional array of random float numbers in the range of
- Use a
random.uniform(low=0.0, high=1.0, size=None)function to generate an n-dimensional array of random float numbers in the range of
import numpy as np random_array = np.random.rand(2, 2) print("2x2 array for random numbers", random_array, "\n") random_float_array = np.random.uniform(25.5, 99.5, size=(3, 2)) print("3 X 2 array of random float numbers in range [25.5, 99.5]", random_float_array)
2x2 array for random numbers [[0.47248707 0.44770557] [0.33280813 0.64284777]] 3 X 2 array of random float numbers in range [25.5, 99.5] [[52.27782303 49.67787027] [28.33494049 37.99789879] [27.19170587 76.69219575]]
Generate an n-dimensional array of random integers
Use the random.random_integers(low, high=None, size=None) to generate a random n-dimensional array of integers.
import numpy as np random_integer_array = np.random.random_integers(5, size=(3, 2)) print("2-dimensional random integer array", random_integer_array)
2-dimensional random integer array [[2 3] [3 4] [3 2]]
Generate random Universally unique IDs
Python UUID Module provides immutable UUID objects. UUID is a Universally Unique Identifier. It has the functions to generate all versions of UUID. Using the
uuid4() function of a UUID module, you can generate a 128 bit long random unique ID ad it's cryptographically safe.
These unique ids are used to identify the documents, Users, resources, or information in computer systems.
import uuid # get a random UUID safeId = uuid.uuid4() print("safe unique id is ", safeId)
safe unique id is UUID('78mo4506-8btg-345b-52kn-8c7fraga847da')
Dice Game Using a Random module
I have created a simple dice game to understand random module functions. In this game, we have two players and two dice.
- One by one, each Player shuffle both the dice and play.
- The algorithm calculates the sum of two dice numbers and adds it to each Player's scoreboard.
- The Player who scores high number is the winner.
import random PlayerOne = "Eric" PlayerTwo = "Kelly" EricScore = 0 KellyScore = 0 # each dice contains six numbers diceOne = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] diceTwo = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] def shuffle_dice(): # Both Eric and Kelly will roll both the dices using shuffle method for i in range(5): # shuffle both the dice 5 times random.shuffle(diceOne) random.shuffle(diceTwo) # use choice method to pick one number randomly firstNumber = random.choice(diceOne) SecondNumber = random.choice(diceTwo) return firstNumber + SecondNumber print("Dice game using a random module\n") # Let's play Dice game three times for i in range(3): # let's do toss to determine who has the right to play first # generate random number from 1 to 100. including 100 EricTossNumber = random.randint(1, 100) # generate random number from 1 to 100. doesn't including 101 KellyTossNumber = random.randrange(1, 101, 1) if (EricTossNumber > KellyTossNumber): print("Eric won the toss") EricScore = shuffle_dice() KellyScore = shuffle_dice() else: print("Kelly won the toss") KellyScore = shuffle_dice() EricScore = shuffle_dice() if (EricScore > KellyScore): print("Eric is winner of dice game. Eric's Score is:", EricScore, "Kelly's score is:", KellyScore, "\n") else: print("Kelly is winner of dice game. Kelly's Score is:", KellyScore, "Eric's score is:", EricScore, "\n")
Dice game using a random module Kelly won the toss Eric is the winner of a dice game. Eric's Score is: 9 Kelly's score is: 6 Kelly won the toss Eric is the winner of a dice game. Eric's Score is: 11 Kelly's score is: 9 Eric won the toss Kelly is the winner of a dice game. Kelly's Score is: 12 Eric's score is: 5
Exercise and Quiz
To practice what you learned in this tutorial, I have created a Quiz and Exercise project.
- Solve a Python Random data generation Quiz to test your random data generation concepts.
- Solve the Python Random data generation Exercise to practice and master the random data generation techniques.
All random data generation tutorials: