In this article, we will learn how to use Python’s range() function with the help of different examples. The `range()`

is a built-in function of Python which **returns a range object**, which is nothing but a sequence of integers. i.e., Python `range()`

**generates the integer numbers between the given start integer to the stop integer**, which is generally used to iterate over with for loop.

- The article is part of
**Python Basics**. - Solve our
**Python Basic Exercise for Beginners**and**Python Quiz for Beginners**to practice Python essential skills.

Let’s understand how to use range() function with the help of a simple example.

print("Python range() example to print numbers from range 0 to 6") for i in range(6): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Python range() example to print numbers from range 0 to 6 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

Note: We got integers from **0 to 5** because ** range() function doesn’t include the last (stop) number in the result**.

## Python range() function syntax and arguments

**Syntax**:

range (start, stop[, step])

- range() takes three arguments.
- Out of the three 2 arguments are optional. I.e.,
**Start and Step are the optional arguments.**

- A start argument is a starting number of the sequence. i.e., lower limit.
**By default, it starts with 0 if not specified**. - A stop argument is an upper limit. i.e.generate numbers up to this number, The
`range()`

function doesn’t include this number in the result. - The step is a difference between each number in the result. The
**default value of the step is 1**if not specified.

### Python range() function Examples

Let see all the possible scenarios now. Below is the **three variant of range()** function.

**Example one – Using only one argument in range()**

print("Print first 5 numbers using range function") for i in range(5): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Print first 5 numbers using range function 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,

- Only stop argument is passed to
`range()`

function. - So by default, it takes
`start = 0`

and`step = 1`

.

**Example Two – using two arguments (i.e., start and stop) in range() function**

print("Print integers within given start and stop number using range() function") for i in range(5, 10): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Print integers within given start and stop number using range() function 5, 6, 7, 8, 9,

- Only two arguments (the start and stop) are passed to the range function.
- So by default, it took step argument value as 1.

**Example Three – using all three arguments in range() function**

print("using start, stop, and step arguments in Python range() function") print("Printing All odd numbers between 1 and 10 using range()") for i in range(1, 10, 2): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

using start, stop, and step arguments in Python range() function Printing All odd numbers between 1 and 10 using range() 1, 3, 5, 7, 9,

All three arguments are specified. i.e. `start = 1`

, `stop = 10`

, `step = 2`

. **Note**:- In the above program step value is 2 so the difference between each number is 2.

### Points to remember about python range() function arguments

**range() function only works with the integers**i.e., whole numbers.**All arguments must be integers**. You can not pass a string or float number or any other type in a start, stop and step argument of a range().- All three
**arguments can be positive or negative**. - The step value must not be zero. If a step is zero python raises a
**ValueError**exception.

## Python range() with for loop

As you know for loop executes a block of code or statement repeatedly for the fixed number of times. Using for loop we can iterate over a sequence of numbers produced by the `range()`

function.

Let see this with an example. Suppose we have a list of 5 numbers and you want to display each element by doubling it let see how to do it using a for loop and range() function.

print("Double the list numbers using for loop and range() function") sampleList = [3, 6, 9, 12, 15] for i in range(len(sampleList)): print( "Element Index[", i, "]", "Previous Value ", sampleList[i], "Now ", sampleList[i] * 2)

**Output**: Run Online

Double the list numbers using for loop and range() function Element Index[ 0 ] Previous Value 3 Now 6 Element Index[ 1 ] Previous Value 6 Now 12 Element Index[ 2 ] Previous Value 9 Now 18 Element Index[ 3 ] Previous Value 12 Now 24 Element Index[ 4 ] Previous Value 15 Now 30

- Here using a
`len(list)`

, we got total elements of a list so we can iterate for loop fixed number of time. In each iteration using a range() function loop gets the index of the current element. **Note**: variable`i`

is not getting the value 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 at the same time.`i`

get value sequentially. i.e., in the first iteration`i= 0`

. in the second iteration`i`

become 1 and so on.

### Python range inclusive

The ** range(n) is of exclusive nature** that is why it doesn’t include the last number in the output. i.e., The given endpoint is never part of the generated result.

For example, `range(0, 5) = [0,1,2,3,4]`

. I.e. it generates integers from 0 to up to 5 but doesn’t include 5. If you want to include the last number in the output i.e., **If you want an inclusive range then pass stop argument value as stop+step**.

**Inclusive range() example in Python**.

print("Printing inclusive range") start = 1 stop = 5 step = 1 # to get inclusive range change stop as stop+step stop +=step #now stop is 6 for i in range(start, stop, step): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Printing inclusive range 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,

**Example 2: Inclusive range**

print("Printing inclusive range") start = 2 stop = 10 step = 2 # to get inclusive range change stop as stop+step stop +=step #now stop is 12 for i in range(start, stop, step): print(i, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Printing inclusive range 2, 4, 6, 8, 10,

## Python range Step

A step is an optional argument in the range function. The **step is a difference between each number in the sequence**. The **default size of a step is 1 if not specified**. If the step size is 2, then the difference between each number is 2.

We can perform lots of operations by effectively using step arguments such as reversing a sequence, printing negative ranges.

### Decrementing with range() using a negative step

We can use negative values in all the arguments of range() function i.e., start, stop and step. Let us see how.

start = -2 stop = -10 step = -2 print("Negative number range") for number in range(start, stop, step): print(number, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Negative number range -2, -4, -6, -8,

**Let’s understand above program**:

we set, `start = -2`

`stop = -10`

, `step = -2`

.

in the 1st iteration of for loop = [-2]. in the 2nd iteration of for loop = [-2,-4] because -2+(-2) == -4 and so on and Last iteration output is [-2,-4,-6,-8]

**Decrementing with the range from Negative to Positive number**

Here in this example, we can learn how to use step argument to display a range of numbers from negative to positive.

print ("printing range from negative to positive") for num in range(-2,5,1): print(num, end=", ")

The output of the above program

printing range from negative to positive -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4,

**Python range from Positive to Negative number**

Here in this example, we can learn how to use step argument effectively to display numbers from positive to negative.

print (" printing range from Positive to Negative") for num in range(2,-5,-1): print(num, end=", ")

**Output**: Run Online

printing range from Positive to Negative 2, 1, 0, -1, -2, -3, -4,

## Convert Python range() to List

Python 3’s range uses the generator. Python 3’s range() will produce value when for loop iteration asked for it. i.e., it **The range() doesn’t produce all numbers at once**.

Python range() function returns an immutable sequence object of integers, so it is possible to convert range() output to the Python list. **Use list class to convert range output to list**. Let’s understand this with the following example.

print("Converting python range() to list") even_list = list( range(2,10,2)) print("printing list", even_list)

**Output**: Run Online

Converting python range() to list printing list [2, 4, 6, 8]

## Using float Numbers in Python range()

**Python range() function doesn’t support the float numbers**. i.e., we cannot use floating-point or non-integer numbers in any of its arguments. we can use only integer numbers.

However, we can **create a custom range function where we can use float numbers** like 0.1 or 1.6 in any of its argument. I have demonstrated this in the below example.

def frange(start, stop=None, step=None): if stop == None: stop = start + 0.0 start = 0.0 if step == None: step = 1.0 while True: if step > 0 and start >= stop: break elif step < 0 and start <= stop: break yield ("%g" % start) # return float number start = start + step print ("Printing float range") floatList = frange(0.5, 1.0, 0.1) for num in floatList: print (num)

**Output**: Run Online

Printing float range 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Also, see other ways to use float numbers in range() function.

## Reverse range in python

If you want to print sequence of numbers within range by descending order or reverse order then its possible, there are two ways to do this.

**The first is to use a negative or down step value**. i.e., set the third argument of a `range()`

to `-1`

.

For example, if you want to display a number sequence like [5,4,3,2,1]. Use negative step value. The following code shows the same.

print ("Displaying list of numbers by reverse order using range()") for number in range(4,-1,-1): print (number, end=', ')

**Output**: Run Online

Displaying list of numbers by reverse order using range() 4, 3, 2, 1, 0

**Alternatively, use the reversed function.**

The ** reversed** function used to reverse a list of any type. To use the

`reversed`

function you need to convert a range output to list first. Let see this with an example.print ("Printing reversed range") reverseed_range = list(reversed(range(0,5))) print(reverseed_range)

**Output**: Run Online

Printing reversed range [4, 3, 2, 1, 0]

## Python’s range() vs xrange() Functions

**range() function works differently between Python 3 and Python 2.**

**Working of range and xrange in Python 2**

- Both the range() and xrange() function generates the sequence of numbers.
**but**and`range()`

produce a list,i.e. a sequence object of type xrange.`xrange()`

produces an xrange object **range() generates all numbers at once**.**xrange() doesn’t generate all numbers at once**. it produces number one by one as for loop moves to the next number

We can test the type of these functions In Python 2 with the following examples: –

print type(range(10)) Output = type 'list'.

print( type( xrange(10) ) ) output = class 'xrange'

print( type( range(10) ) ) output = class 'range'

**Do you know why they deprecated original python2’s range() function**in Python 3? The main reason behind deprecation of the original range() function is memory and speed. Please take a look at

**range() vs xrange() and their use**for more in detail information

### Should we always favor range() over xrange()?

If you are using Python 2.x then yes. as you know in python 2.x *range() function loads all the numbers in the main memory before iterating them by for loop this leads to high memory usage and increased execution speed.*

If you want to write code that will run on both Python 2 and Python 3, you should use range().

## Python range() over character or alphabet

Is there a way to print a range of characters or alphabets? For example like this.

for char in range ('a','z'): print (char)

**Note**: The above code is a pseudo-code.

Yes, It’s possible using the custom generator. let’s see the example. in the following example, I have demonstrated how to **generate ‘a’ to ‘z’ alphabet using the custom range() function**. this is inclusive, means it also includes the last character.

Here we used an ASCII value range and then convert an ASCII value to a letter using a `Chr()`

function.

**Python Program to Generate letters from ‘a’ to ‘z’ using custom range() function**

print ("""Generates the characters from `a` to `z`, inclusive.""") def character_range(char1, char2): for char in range(ord(char1), ord(char2)+1): yield (char) for letter in character_range('a', 'z'): print( chr(letter), end=", " )

Generates the characters from `a` to `z`, inclusive. a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z,

## How does the Python range() function work?

Python range() return value is determined by a formula and some value constraints.

range[n] = start + step * n ( for both positive and negative step value ) For Positive step value n >=0 and range[n] < stop For Negative step value n >= 0 and range[n] > stop

**Note**: If a step is a non-zero, Python range() function checks the **value constraint.** range() returns **an Empty** sequence If it doesn’t meet the value constraint.

So you must be thinking why does python range(start, end) not include end ? it has a very simple answer because index always starts with ZERO in python. if you count total numbers between range (5) you will get [0,1,2,3,4] i.e. total count is 5.

## Concatenating the result of two range() function in python

Let say you want to add `range(5) + range(10,15)`

. (**Note**: this code is a pseudo-code.) And you want the concatenated range like `[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14]`

.

Can we concatenate the output of two range functions?

Yes, this is possible using * itertools. *using

*function of itertools we can do this.*

**chain()**Program: Concatenating two range function results.

from itertools import chain print ("Concatinated two range() function") concatenated_range = chain(range(10), range(50, 75)) for num in concatenated_range: print(num,end=", ")

**Output**: Run Online

Concatinated two range() function 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74,

## Access Python range() result with its index value

range() is constructor returns a range object which is nothing but a sequence of numbers, this range object can also be accessed by its index using slice notation. It supports both positive and negative indices. below example explains the same.

print("accessing python range objet with its index") first_number = range(0,10)[0] #printing 0th position number i.e. index ZERO means first number print("First number in given range is: ", first_number) fifth_number = range(0,10)[4] print("fifth number in given range is: ", fifth_number)

**Output**: Run Online

accessing python range objet with its index First number in given range is: 0 fifth number in given range is: 4

you can also convert python range() output to list and access this list with its index like this.

sample_list = list( range(1,10) ) print ("second element is ", sample_list[1] )

Output:

second element is 2

## Next Steps

To practice what you learned in this article, I have created a Python Basic **Quiz and Exercise**.

- Solve our
**Python essential exercise for beginners**to have a better understanding of Python’s basic concepts. - Solve our
**Basic Python Quiz for beginners**to test your fundamental Python skills.

Let me know your comments and feedback in the section below.

Koert

Rename list to alist or something like that.

The variable list has overwritten the built-in list function.

TypeError: ‘generator’ object is not callable

Keep up the good work. Thanks again for your article.

Koert

Change list to alist or something like that, or you get problems later on using the built-in function list. And the word “Elment” is missing an e (Element).

Great article by the way! I loved it.

Vishal

Thanks Koert for your observation

Dani

Vishal

Man, That was way better than any article I’ve ever read in Python . Thank you for this comprehensive article.

Vishal

Thank you Dani. I am glad you liked it.

ahcene

awesome site !

aliya

This is very good content you share on this blog. it’s very informative and provide me future related information.

Anon

The output for ‘Example One’ is missing a comma at the end :

Print first 5 numbers using range function

0, 1, 2, 3, 4,

Vishal

Hey, Anon Thank you. I have added comma.

Philip

Thanks for a very well written article with many examples. I found some typos:

(all tested with Python Shell 3.7.1)

1) First example, there should be a comma after the 2 0, 1, 2,

2) Second example is also missing the trailing comma after the 4

3) In the second example under the heading “Python range() with for loop”,

in the print function, there is a missing comma after index

and in the example output, there should be a 4 not 0 inside the square brackets of the last line

4) Your example for “Python range inclusive” is only true if the increment is 1

5) In the section “Reverse range in python” the stated goal is the list [5,4,3,2,1] but the example

shows 4, 3, 2, 1, 0 which was not the goal, and is also missing the trailing comma

6) The reversed list example fails as follows:

7) having pseudo code like:

can be misleading for someone skimming the article, and mistaking it for valid python syntax

The same for the concatenation example that looks like it is valid code.

8) In this section “Access Python range() result with its index value” , the second indexed value

with an index of 5 is fetching the sixth element of the range

9) the last example for sample_list gives me the same traceback report as (6) above.

Thanks again for the article.

Vishal

Hi Philip. Thank you for your comments. it is output typo mistakes(missing commas in the few of the outputs). its updated now

6) The reversed list example fails as follows: Philip it is working as expected I rechecked it.

7) Yes, it is a pseudo-code I have added a warning there wherever I added pseudo-code

8) It is typing mistake I was fetching the sixth element. updated the example.

9) It is working correctly

Once again thanks for the review. Appreciated.:)

Emma

Thanks for your informative article on Python range .As you have described it beautifuuly and easily.

Vishal

I am glad you Liked it