In this Python tutorial, you’ll learn how to move files and folders from one location to another.
After reading this article, you’ll learn: –
- How to move single and multiple files using the
- Move files that match a pattern (wildcard)
- Move an entire directory
Steps to Move a File in Python
Python shutil module offers several functions to perform high-level operations on files and collections of files. We can move files using the
shutil.move() method. The below steps show how to move a file from one directory to another.
- Find the path of a file
We can move a file using both relative path and absolute path. The path is the location of the file on the disk.
An absolute path contains the complete directory list required to locate the file. For example,
.txtis an absolute path to discover the sales.txt.
- Use the shutil.move() function
shutil.move()function is used to move a file from one directory to another.
First, import the shutil module and Pass a source file path and destination directory path to the
- Use the os.listdir() and shutil move() function to move all files
Suppose you want to move all/multiple files from one directory to another, then use the
os.listdir()function to list all files of a source folder, then iterate a list using a for loop and move each file using the
Example: Move a Single File
Use the shutil.move() method move a file permanently from one folder to another.
shutil.move(source, destination, copy_function = copy2)
source: The path of the source file which needs to be moved.
destination: The path of the destination directory.
copy_function: Moving a file is nothing but copying a file to a new location and deletes the same file from the source. This parameter is the function used for copying a file and its default value is
shutil.copy2(). This could be any other function like
In this example, we are moving the sales.txt file from the report folder to the account folder.
import shutil # absolute path src_path = r"E:\pynative\reports\sales.txt" dst_path = r"E:\pynative\account\sales.txt" shutil.move(src_path, dst_path)
- The move() function returns the path of the file you have moved.
- If your destination path matches another file, the existing file will be overwritten.
- It will create a new directory if a specified destination path doesn’t exist while moving file.
Move File and Rename
Let’s assume your want to move a file, but the same file name already exists in the destination path. In such cases, you can transfer the file by renaming it.
Let’s see how to move a file and change its name.
- Store source and destination directory path into two separate variables
- Store file name into another variable
- Check if the file exists in the destination folder
- If yes, Construct a new name for a file and then pass that name to the
Suppose we want to move sales.csv into a folder called to account, and if it exists, rename it to sales_new.csv and move it.
import os import shutil src_folder = r"E:\pynative\reports\\" dst_folder = r"E:\pynative\account\\" file_name = 'sales.csv' # check if file exist in destination if os.path.exists(dst_folder + file_name): # Split name and extension data = os.path.splitext(file_name) only_name = data extension = data # Adding the new name new_base = only_name + '_new' + extension # construct full file path new_name = os.path.join(dst_folder, new_base) # move file shutil.move(src_folder + file_name, new_name) else: shutil.move(src_folder + file_name, dst_folder + file_name)
Move All Files From A Directory
Sometimes we want to move all files from one directory to another. Follow the below steps to move all files from a directory.
- Get the list of all files present in the source folder using the
os.listdir()function. It returns a list containing the names of the files and folders in the given directory.
- Iterate over the list using a for loop to get the individual filenames
- In each iteration, concatenate the current file name with the source folder path
- Now use the
shutil.move()method to move the current file to the destination folder path.
Example: Move all files from the report folder into a account folder.
import os import shutil source_folder = r"E:\pynative\reports\\" destination_folder = r"E:\pynative\account\\" # fetch all files for file_name in os.listdir(source_folder): # construct full file path source = source_folder + file_name destination = destination_folder + file_name # move only files if os.path.isfile(source): shutil.move(source, destination) print('Moved:', file_name)
Our code moved two files. Here is a list of the files in the destination directory:
os.listdir(dst_folder) function to list all files present in the destination directory to verify the result.
Move Multiple Files
Let’s assume you want to move only a few files. In this example, we will see how to move files present in a list from a specific folder into a destination folder.
import shutil source_folder = r"E:\pynative\reports\\" destination_folder = r"E:\pynative\account\\" files_to_move = ['profit.csv', 'revenue.csv'] # iterate files for file in files_to_move: # construct full file path source = source_folder + file destination = destination_folder + file # move file shutil.move(source, destination) print('Moved:', file)
Moved: profit.csv Moved: revenue.csv
Move Files Matching a Pattern (Wildcard)
Suppose, you want to move files if a name contains a specific string.
The Python glob module, part of the Python Standard Library, is used to find the files and folders whose names follow a specific pattern.
glob.glob(pathname, *, recursive=False)
- We can use the wildcard characters for pattern matching. The
glob.glob()method returns a list of files or folders that matches the pattern specified in the
- Next, use the loop to move each file using the
Refer this to use different wildcard to construct different patterns.
Move files based on file extension
In this example, we will move files which has txt extension.
import glob import os import shutil src_folder = r"E:\pynative\report" dst_folder = r"E:\pynative\account\\" # Search files with .txt extension in source directory pattern = "\*.txt" files = glob.glob(src_folder + pattern) # move the files with txt extension for file in files: # extract file name form file path file_name = os.path.basename(file) shutil.move(file, dst_folder + file_name) print('Moved:', file)
Moved: E:\pynative\report\revenue.txt Moved: E:\pynative\report\sales.txt
Move Files based on filename
Let’s see how to move file whose name starts with specific string.
import glob import os import shutil src_folder = r"E:\pynative\reports" dst_folder = r"E:\pynative\account\\" # move file whose name starts with string 'emp' pattern = src_folder + "\emp*" for file in glob.iglob(pattern, recursive=True): # extract file name form file path file_name = os.path.basename(file) shutil.move(file, dst_folder + file_name) print('Moved:', file)